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stalin抯 extraordinary agricultural policies had momentous effects
for the country抯 subsequent development and sounded the death knell
for the old peasant russia. the collectivization drove millions of
peasants out of the countryside to the cities and construction
sites, providing inexhaustible cheap labor to accomplish the great
industrial leap. until the end of his days stalin prided himself on
the achievements of his collectivization, referring to it as the
揝econd revolution?after the october revolution.
soviet leadership saw its agricultural policy as subordinate to the
needs of the industrial restructuring of the country. the
collectivization enabled it to supply the expanding industries with
raw materials, feed the factory workers, accumulate financial
resources by exporting grain, and maintain a constant flow of
surplus rural population to man new construction sites and
state could now dictate its mandatory procurement plans for
agricultural produce and industrial crops that were increased from
year to year. these compulsory deliveries were burdensome for the
peasants, as the state procurement prices were set many times lower
than the market value. on the positive side, the collective farms
benefited from industrialization by receiving more machinery to
substitute for the workstock lost during the collectivization. as
the output of tractors, combine harvesters, trucks and other
machinery picked up, it became possible to set up so-called
machine-tractor stations that specialized in providing mechanized
services to collective farms.
the long run the triumph of soviet power in the countryside turned
out to be a pyrrhic victory. despite stalin抯 搒ocialist
transformation of agriculture,?no genuine modernization of the
agrarian sector took place during the 1930s. despite decades of
揵uilding socialism,?the country that had been one of the world抯
main grain producers and exporters before the revolution was unable
to produce enough grain for domestic consumption and was obliged to
begin to import grain beginning in 1963. the chronic backwardness of
the agrarian sector and its inability to meet growing consumer
demands fueled discontent in soviet society.