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the onset of stalin抯 revolution 揻rom above?from the late 1920s onward
signified a major turning point in the nationality policy from pragmatism and
flexibility toward stringency and repression.
particular, stalin抯 forced collectivization of agriculture in the
early 1930s caused great upheaval and suffering both among russian
and non-russian rural populations. the collectivization was probably
the greatest disaster in kazakh history and was accompanied by the
enforcement of a settled way of life on the nomadic people and the
destruction of traditional clan structures. the nomads resisted as
much as they could by taking up arms, killing their cattle, or
fleeing across the border into neighboring china. in the ukraine,
the administrative collectivization and the forcible requisitioning
of crops in 1932-34 resulted in the famine that caused the deaths of
several million people.
stalin抯 radical policies were accompanied by purges among
republican elites to curb any nationalist tendencies and
揹eviations.?they soon escalated into an all-encompassing wave of
terror that peaked in 1936-38. it dealt a crushing blow to the
administrative elites in the republics. all members of the ukrainian
politburo, for example, perished in the purge. the terror affected
the elites of all nationalities, but its consequences in the union
republics were particularly severe as it undermined many of the
achievements of indigenization. stalin抯 policies and the methods
used to enforce them to a great extent put a chill on the process of
nation building that had begun in the 1920s.
result of the stalin revolution, many of the ideological imperatives
of the soviet nationality policy were transformed. in the 1920s the
party leadership had sought to eradicate all vestiges of the
imperial mentality of russians, derided as 揋reat russian
chauvinism.?now the emphasis was reversed, and 搇ocal nationalism?
was perceived a much bigger threat. the calls for international
solidarity of proletarians were replaced by the new integrating
ideology of soviet patriotism and by the leader抯 cult.
patriotism and the deification of the leader had, of course, deep
roots in the prerevolutionary past. the officially sponsored
patriotism had a certain base of support among the russian
population and, in particular, among the burgeoning numbers of
russian industrial workers and engineers. many of them had come from
rural communities and had achieved their new status and
qualifications thanks to the policies of the communist regime. as a
result of industrialization and rising educational attainments, the
new russian nationalist movement began to take shape under the
control of the central authorities. consequently, soviet patriotism
had a distinctive russian flavor.