Fortunately, most of the major review sites have software in place to protect against fake reviews. For example, a 2013 study by Harvard Business School found that roughly 16% of Yelp reviews are identified by the site's software as fake and subsequently filtered by Yelp's detection algorithm. TripAdvisor has a zero tolerance policy for fake reviews, and subjects every review to approximately 50 filters for integrity and moderation issues. Suspicious reviews are subject to moderation by one of a bank of 300 content specialists, many of whom have backgrounds in law enforcement, credit card fraud, and even forensic computing. Booking.com has a similar evaluation process in place, with the added benefit that only guests who have booked and stayed with the hotel in question are invited to write a review. Consumers who haven't booked and stayed with the hotel are not given a way to write a review at all.
The protection against fake reviews doesn't just stop there. TripAdvisor tracks IP addresses and punishes businesses who are caught trying to write their own reviews. Last year, Yelp sued three companies attempting to profit by selling fake positive reviews to businesses.
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揺lected,?a soviet, in its turn, 揺lected?a set of executive
officials to manage the government in its jurisdiction. in reality,
the soviet simply ratified a choice that had been made by the
communist party authorities. at lower levels of the soviet
structures the executive arm of each soviet was called the executive
committee. it consisted of a chairman, the deputy chairs, and the
heads of government departments responsible for such areas as
finance, transportation, public catering, and education. the
executive officials were formally accountable to the soviets, but,
in reality, they were answerable to two sets of superior
authorities: higher level government executive officials and
communist party officials.
the highest levels, such as the level of union republics?
administration and the all-union central government, the model of
soviet and executive committee took on a more elaborate form.
instead of a soviet, there was a supreme soviet; instead of an
executive committee, there was a council of ministers. the ussr
supreme soviet had the formal authority to enact laws, but its
function was not in principle different from the ceremonial
character of lower level soviets. the supreme soviet met only twice
a year, and then for a few days each time, to hear official reports
and rubber-stamp motions proposed by the leadership.
the apex of the state executive was the ussr council of ministers.
formally, it was equivalent to the cabinet of a parliamentary
government in a western democracy. in reality, all major strategic
decisions were taken by the politburo of the communist party of the
soviet union (cpsu), in effect the cabinet, whereas the council of
ministers was, in effect, a committee of administrators entrusted
with carrying out the strategies of the politburo and running the
state economy. a similar system was replicated in all constituent
republics of the soviet union.